, However, Jeremy Rifkin claims that "genetically altered human embryos and fetuses as well as human genes, cell lines, tissues, and organs are potentially patentable, leaving open the possibility of patenting all of the separate parts, if not the whole, of a human being, pp.44-45

, Just to prove Shatz's point, the onco-mouse was originally refused a patent by the EPO, but this was reversed in 1992, and, more generally, p.452, 1997.

. Ossorio, , p.412

. Ossorio, , p.412

, For a more sceptical view of this decision see (Sagoff, pp.434-440, 1980.

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. Ossorio, , p.411

. Ossorio, Available on the web at if we suppose that such a utilitarian justification would operate against a background of moral and legal rights precluding such things as theft and forced labour, p.409

. Concerning and . Ossorio, the law seems to reward results, not contributions and efforts, and Resnik p, vol.4, p.408

S. Ossorio, concerning what may be a substantial difference between the socially optimal rate of invention and the maximal rate of invention, p.409

, At p. 2 Shulman notes of the USPTO that "despite its size, age and pedigree, the agency must surely rank as one of the least-known agencies of the U.S. government", he also expresses widespread doubts about the ability of the USPTO to interpret its criteria for awarding patents

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, In 1991, the patent office was cut off from general tax revenues and required to subsist entirely on 26 fees from its operating budget. The political argument was that customers should pay for government services. Thus, officials think of their fee-paying applicants as their customers: the more the better". (Emphasis in the text). Gleick says, However, this would have no obvious effect on the "capture" of the PTO by companies pursuing patents, on whom the Office frequently depends both for expertise and for revenues, pp.198-90, 1997.

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