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Preprints, Working Papers, ... (Working Paper) Year : 2021

From Micro to Macro Gender Differences: Evidence from Field Tournaments

Abstract

We document that women compete worse against men in field tournaments in over 150 countries and across all ages. Our field setting is the game of chess and we benefit from a large and rich dataset to investigate the robustness and heterogeneity of our uncovered gender differences in competition. We find a macro gender gap in every country: there are fewer female than male players, especially at the top, and women have lower average rankings. Moreover, comparing millions of individual games, we find a small but robust micro gender gap: women’s scores are about 2% lower than expected when playing a man rather than a woman with an identical rating, age and country. Using a simple theoretical model, we show how this small micro gap may affect women’s long-run human-capital formation. By reducing effort and increasing the probability of quitting, both effects accumulate to explain a larger share of the macro gap.
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Dates and versions

hal-03389151 , version 1 (20-10-2021)
hal-03389151 , version 2 (02-02-2023)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives

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José de Sousa, Guillaume Hollard. From Micro to Macro Gender Differences: Evidence from Field Tournaments. 2021. ⟨hal-03389151v2⟩
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